Multiscale and Multiphysics

Multiscale and multiphysics material modelling of polycrystalline metals and forming processes

Numerical modeling and optimization of the constitutive material properties for metallic materials and components could have a huge effect on improvement of the manufacturing processes of those materials as well as their functionality and load carrying capacity after production, since they can provide a tool to efficiently study different size scales of the material and try to adjust them hierarchically, which is only feasible by numerical simulations.

The primarily objective of the projects in the group of “Multiscale and multiphysics material modelling” at the IKM is to formulate the material behavior of the metallic parts during and after forming processes. This includes the micro-scale simulations of the material during the process of forming and joining in order to manufacture the component, and extracting an effective macro-mechanical property for the component which is functionally and structurally adjusted. The simulations take into account different deformation behaviors of the polycrystals of the microstructure as well as loading conditions, such as thermal, mechanical (static, cyclic, etc.) and chemical loadings, based on the process.

These projects, in close collaboration with production institutes, try to open up a new field towards improved metal forming processes, for production of components with better functionality, more complex geometry, and better mechanical properties.

Multiscale and multiphysics material modelling of polycrystalline metals and forming processes

  • Water-induced damage mechanisms of cyclic loaded high-performance concretes
    The use of offshore wind energy is expanding and fatigue-loaded concrete structures are built that are submerged in water. This currently already applies to so-called grouted joints, where high-strength fine-grained concrete (grout) is used in the steel support structures of offshore wind turbines. Such constructions are subjected to several hundred million load cycles within their service life. An increased water content in the concrete results from the offshore exposure which is principally different to onshore constructions,. Comparatively few investigations of fatigue-tested concrete specimens immersed in water are documented in the literature. Despite the fact, that considerably scatterings occur in these results a clear tendency can be observed. Specimens that are immersed in water have a significantly lower fatigue resistance compared with specimens tested in air. Some investigations also show that fatigue-loaded concrete specimens immersed in water have a significant change in their fracture behaviour compared with specimens tested in air. This can be seen, in tests, for example, by ascending air bubbles, wash-outs of fine particles and premature crack initiation.Water-induced damage mechanisms in fatigue-loaded concrete have indeed been recognised in the past, but they were not identified and described with sufficient precision. Consequently, they cannot be quantified reliably. Based on the existing knowledge gap, the vast majority of these mechanisms have currently escaped numerical modelling and simulation.The aim of this research project is to understand, analyse and quantify macroscopically water-induced damage mechanisms of fatigue-loaded high-performance concretes in the Experimental-Virtual-Lab (EVL) with complementary very latest state-of-the-art experimental methods. At the same time, models will be created and numerically implemented on a micromechanical basis that enables proving of hypotheses that will be derived from the experimental investigations. The structural data serve for the validation of these models; the data will be determined by µCT scans, NMR measurements and mercury intrusion porosimetry.After a first clarification of the origin of mechanisms by the EVL, modelling at the macroscopic level will be attempted on the basis of the micromechanical investigations. In this way it will be verified, how the water influences the degradation behaviour of fatigue-loaded high-performance concretes and which additional active, water-induced damage mechanisms are decisively involved in the degradation process. It will be possible for the first time to carry out a prediction of the degradation behaviour of fatigue-loaded high-performance concretes immersed in water based on microstructurally orientated parameters.
    Led by: Fadi Aldakheel, Peter Wriggers
    Year: 2020
    Funding: DFG SPP 2020, zweite Förderperiode
    Duration: 3 Jahre
  • Modelling and simulation of the joining zone during the tailored forming process
    In this project, micromechanically motivated thermo-chemo-mechanical material models are developed on a microscopic length scale and transformed to an effective macroscopic material model. In order to achieve a high mechanical strength of the hybrid solid component, these material models are used to evaluate the sensitivity of different process parameters after joining and during forming and heat treatment. Moreover, with aid of the the evaluation results the material behaviour of the joining zone can be accurately adjusted during the Tailored Forming process.
    Led by: F. Aldakheel, P. Wriggers
    Team: C. Böhm, F. Töller
    Year: 2019
    Funding: DFG im Rahmen des SFB 1153
  • Creep deformation of nickel based superalloys
    Modeling of nickel based superalloys on two scales using crystal plasticity and XFEM methods.
    Led by: P. Wriggers
    Team: L. Munk
    Year: 2018
  • Modelling the temperature development and crack propagation during sheet-bulk metal forming
    n metal forming processes a large amount of mechanical work is dissipated due to large plastic deformations. The accompanying temperature rise leads to thermal strains and a change in the material behaviour which can influence the mechanical behaviour during the forming process and the final shape of the part. For this reason it is important to consider temperature effects and heat conduction in the material modelling of the polycrystalline microstructure. The resulting thermomechanical problem exhibits a strong coupling since on the one hand through mechanical deformation heat sources are introduced and on the other hand material parameters may depend on the temperature and also large thermal strains can emerge. Experimentally the temperature influence can be analysed by performing experiments at IW, IFUM, LFT or IUL with material specimens at different temperatures. The results can be used to develop a thermomechanical material model for the microstructure. By using homogenization techniques the macroscopic effective material model developed in period 1 of the SFB/TR73 will be extended by temperature effects. Another critical effect occurring during the forming process is the initiation and propagation of microcracks. This effect will lead to a stiffness reduction or even to failure of the entire structure. Therefore it is essential to study the degradation mechanisms of the crystallographic microstructure. A nonlocal damage model will be used to induce microcracks. For propagating the crack existing models have to be extended to nonlinear anisotropic and inelastic materials. Especially a criterion has to be found when cracks collide with grain boundaries. For the case of stable crack growth with a statistical simulation series a representative volume element can be found. This is used to produce a micromechanically motivated stress strain relationship by a homogenization procedure. With this material response the effective material model of period 1 of the SFB/TR73 will be extended. Here it is important to capture the softening effects with a nonlocal damage model which is for example used and developed at the IUL. In a last step the two approaches will be combined for the construction of a material model capturing thermomechanical effects and cracks on the microstructural level.
    Led by: S. Löhnert, P. Wriggers
    Team: S. Beese, S. Zeller
    Year: 2013