Phase transformations

Phases characterize different states in which matter can occur, including the classic states of matter: solid, liquid and gaseous. In addition, phases also include different structural forms within solids, such as different crystal lattice structures. Phase transformations refer to the transition from one phase to another and are of central importance in numerous natural processes as well as in industrial applications. Understanding and modeling these transitions is essential to understand and optimize processes and develop new materials. Phase transformations are particularly important in the production and use of glass and shape memory alloys. In glass, phase transitions have a decisive influence on the optical properties and mechanical strength. In shape memory alloys, phase transformations enable remarkable properties, such as the ability to return to a predefined shape after a temperature change or very large reversible deformations.

There are various techniques for modeling phase transformations. A central concept in classical mechanics for this is the Hamilton principle. This principle offers an elegant and universal framework for deriving material equations, which is why we use it at IKM. The material equations derived from this are then implemented in both scientific and industrially used software packages. To ensure that the simulation models accurately represent real physical phenomena, the simulation results are compared with data from experiments. The simulation models allow engineers and scientists to predict how materials will react under different conditions, allowing new designs and constructions to be developed.